Κανόνες προφοράς Λατινικής Γλώσσας
|a||canis||/a/||/a/||/a/||/a/||/a(ː)/||/ɑ(ː)/ or /eɪ/|
|ae (æ)||saepe, bonae||/aɪ, ae/, later /ɛː/||/ɛ/||/e/||/ɛ/||/eː/ or /ɛː/||/eɪ/ or /iː/|
|ce,i,ae,oe||benedīcimus||/k/||/tʃ/||/θ/ or /s/||/s/||/ts/||/s/|
|ch||pulcher||/kʰ/||/k/||/k/||/k/||/x/ or /ç/||/k/|
|e||venī ("come", imperative singular)||/ɛ/||/ɛ/||/e/||/ɛ/||/ɛ/ or /eː/||/ɛ/, /eɪ/ or /iː/|
|ē||vēnī ("I came", "I have come")||/eː/||/e/||/e/||/e/||/eː/||/iː/|
|gn||magnum||/ŋn/||/ɲɲ/||/ɣn/||/ɡn/||/ɡn/ or /ŋn/||/ɡn/|
|h||hominibus||/h, -/||/-/||/-/||/-/||/h/||/h/ or /-/|
|i||fides||/ɪ/||/i/||/i/||/i/||/ɪ/||/ɪ/ or /aɪ/|
|o||solum||/ɔ/||/ɔ/||/o/||/o(ː)/||/ɔ/||/ɒ/ or /əʊ/|
|oe (œ)||poena||/ɔɪ, oe/, later /eː/||/e/||/e/||/e/||/øː/||/iː/|
|qu||quis||/kʷ/||/kw/||/kw/ or /k/||/kw/a /kɥ/æ,e,i /k/o,u||/kv/||/kw/|
|/sθ/ or /s/||/s/||/sts/||/s/|
|tiV||nātiō||/tɪ/||/tsj/||/θj/ or /sj/||/sj/||/tsɪ/||/ʃɪ/|
|u||ut, sumus||/ʊ/||/u/||/u/||/y(ː)/||/ʊ/||/ʌ/ or /juː/|
|v||veritās||/w/, later /v/||/v/||/b/ or /β/||/v/||/v/||/v/|
|xce,i,ae,oe||excelsis||/ksk/||/kstʃ/||/sθ/ or /s/||/ɡz/ or /ks/||/ksts/||/ks/|
Ecclesiastical Latin Pronunciation
Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the pronunciation and usages of Latin by the Catholic Church. In some respects, such as pronunciation, it differs from the Latin spoken by Caesar, Seneca and Cicero, called Classical Latin. Classical Latin is what classics departments in major universities teach, and is also the Latin taught on language tapes, unless Ecclesiastical Latin is specified. A characteristic difference would be the pronunciation of regina coeli. In Classical Latin the "g" is hard and the "c" sounds like "k". In Ecclesiastical Latin, which is defined as Latin spoken as Italian would be pronounced in Rome, the "g" is soft and the c has a "ch" sound.
The following pronunciation table is adapted from the Liber Usalis, one of the former chant books for Mass and Office. Its introduction to Gregorian Chant is also invaluable
|ΓΡΑΜΜΑ||ΠΡΟΦΟΡΑ / Italian||ΠΡΟΦΟΡΑ / German|
[ α | ah ]
|A is pronounced as in the word Father, never as in the word can.
We must be careful to get this open, warm sound, especially when A is followed by M or N as in Sanctus, Nam, etc.
|A is pronounced as a relaxed "ah" as in the word "father" [never as "ae" in "cat" or "aw" in "law"]|
[ ε | eh ]
|E is pronounced as in Red, men, met;
never with the suspicion of a second sound as in Ray.
|E is pronounced as either a european closed "e" (the first part of the dipthong "day") or as an "eh" (as in "dead") depending on the following:
[ i | ee ]
|I is pronounced as ee in Feet, never as i in milk or tin.||I is pronounced as an "ee" sound, as in "feet" [never as "i" in "fit"]|
[ ɔ | aw ]
|O is pronounced as in Fought, For, never as in go.||O is pronounced as the european closed "o" (no American analog) [never with a dipthong "oh-oo" in "low"]|
[ u | oo ]
|U is pronounced as oo in Moon, never as in custom.||U is pronounced as an "oo" as in "school" [never as open "U" in "foot"]|
[ i | ee ]
|Y is pronounced and treated as the Latin I. (see above)||Y is pronounced as "ü" (shape lips in "oo" but place tongue as for "ee")|
|ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΗ||The pronunciation given for i, o, u, gives the approximate quality of the sounds, which may be long or short; care must be taken to bring out the accent of the word.
►e.g. mártyr = márteer.
|Double Vowels||As a general rule when two vowels come together each keeps its own sound and constitutes a separate syllable.
►e.g. diéi is di-é-i; fílii is fíl-i-i; eórum is e-ó-rum
|The rule of each keeping its own sound applies to OU and AI.
►e.g. prout is pro-oot; coutúntur = co-oo-toón-toor; áit is ah-eet
|AE - OE
[ ε | eh ]
|However, AE and OE are pronounced as one sound, like E above.
|The two vowels form one syllable but both vowels must be distinctly heard. The principle emphasis and interest belongs to the first which must be sounded purely. If on such a syllable several notes are sung, the vocalization is entirely on the first vowel, the second being heard only on the last note at the moment of passing to the following syllable.||--|
|EI||EI is similarly treated only when it occurs in the interjection:
Hei = Hei, otherwise, Mei = mé-i, etc.
|QU - NGU
[ ku | kw ]
[ kv ]
|U preceded by Q or NG and followed by another vowel as in words like qui and sanguis, keeps its normal sound and is uttered as one syllable with the vowel which follows : qui, quae, quod, quam, sanguis. But notice that cui forms two syllables, and is pronounced as koo-ee. In certain hymns, on account of the metre, this word can be treated as one syllable.||QU is pronounced as "kv": Qui ("kvee"), Quoniam ("kvoh-nee-am")|
|ΓΡΑΜΜΑ||ΠΡΟΦΟΡΑ / Italian||ΠΡΟΦΟΡΑ / German|
|C||C coming before e, ae, oe, i, y is pronounced like ch in Church
►e.g. caelum = che-loom; Cecília = che-cheé-lee-a
CC before the same vowels (e, ae, oe, i, y) is pronounced tch.
►e.g. ecce = eht-cheh; síccitas = seét-chee-tas
►e.g. In Ecclesiis = Een Ehk-kleh-see-ees; peccata = pehk-kah-tah
SC before the same vowels (e, ae, oe, i, y) is pronounced like Sh in shell
►e.g. descendit = deh-shéhn-deet
Except for these cases C is always pronounced like the English K
►e.g. cáritas = káh-ree-tahs
CH is always like K (even before E or I)
►e.g. Cham = Kam, máchina = má-kee-na
|G||G is hard, like the "g" in God
►e.g. Gloria = Glw-ree-ah
G before e, ae, oe, i, y, when it is soft like the "g" in gem
►e.g. angelicus = ahn-jeh-lee-coos, unigenitum = oo-nee-jeh-nee-toom
GN has the softened sound given to those letters in French and Italian.
►e.g. (French) agneau, signor, monsignor
The nearest English equivalent would be N followed by y.
►e.g. Regnum = Reh-nyoom; Magnificat = Mah-nyeé-fee-caht
|G is always a hard "g" as in "get"|
|H||H is pronounced K in the two words nihil (nee-keel) and mihi (mee-kee) and their compounds.
In ancient books these words are often written nichil and michi.
In all other cases H is mute.
|H is pronounced (it is silent in Roman Latin)|
|J||J, often written as I (e.g. juris or iurus), is treated as Y, forming one sound with the vowel which follows it.
►e.g. jam, iam = yam; alleluia = allelóoya; major = ma-yor
|J is always a "y" as in "you"|
|PH||Ph is pronounced like "f"
►e.g. prophetas = praw-feh-tahs; Seraphim = Seh-rah-feem
|R||When with another consonant, care must be taken not to omit this sound. It must be slightly rolled on the tongue (carnis). Care must be taken not to modify the quality of the vowel in the syllable preceding the R.
►Kyrie: Say Kée-ree-e not Kear-ee-e
►sapere: Say sáh-pe-re not sah-per-e
►diligere: Say dee-lée-ge-re not dee-lee-ger-e
|S||S is hard as in the English word sea, but is slightly softened when coming between two vowels.
|S is pronounced as "z" before vowels, but as "s" before consonants and at the end of words: Sanctus dominus ("Zangk-tus do-mee-noos") In Spritum sanctum ("een spee-ree-toom zangk-toom")|
|T||T is like the English T, except as below.
TI standing before a vowel and following any letter (except S, X, T) is pronounced tsee.
►patientia = pa-tsee-én-tsee-a
►gratia = grá-tsee-a
►constitutio = con-stee-tú-tsee-o
►laetitia = lae-tée-tsee-a
TH is always simply T.
►e.g. Sabaoth = Sah-bah-awt; Catholicam = Cah-taw-lee-cahm
|T is always a hard "t": deprecationem ("deh-preh-ca-tee-o-nehm")|
|X||X is pronounced ks, slightly softened when coming between vowels.
XC before e, ae, oe, i, y = KSH.
►e.g. excélsis = ek-shél-sees
Before other vowels XC has the ordinary hard sound of the letters composing it.
►e.g. excussorum = eks-koos-só-room
|Y||A Latin vowel, pronounced like I.||--|
|Z||Z is pronounced dz. zizánia.||--|
|B, D, F, K, L, M, N, P, Q and V:||Pronounced as in English||--|
|Double consonants||Double consonants must be clearly sounded. bello = bel-lo; terra = ter-ra||--|